Beijing Targets Change In the 996 Work Week

by Joe

Chinese Labor Practices Part 1

Please see the writer’s editorial statement at the end of the article before closing.

If you think you’ve been working long hours since the pandemic began, or maybe just generally,  you should see what Chinese, white-collar tech workers have been facing for years! 

Millions of Chinese employees work a 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. schedule, six days a week.  This is referred to as a 996 work week.  Employers, Alibaba for example, believe it is a critical part of the success they’ve enjoyed.  From management’s perspective, the 996 schedule also played a major role in the rapid growth of the Chinese economy.   There are variations on this schedule, including a 995 schedule, alternating weeks of 996 followed by a 995 schedule, and even a 997 schedule.  While this massive effort has helped propel the success of many Chinese tech giants, it has also taken a human toll.

The prevalence of a 996 work schedule has been creeping into China’s tech sector since the early 2000’s. This was the period when Chinese tech companies started experiencing rapid growth.  It was so rapid, in fact, that the firms could not hire new workers fast enough to keep pace with expanding sales.  In various corporations, temporary stop-gap solutions, such as increasing overtime hours gradually became the norm.  Additionally, China’s main economic advantage over other nations was lower wages.  They had set customer expectations that basically backed themselves into a corner.  Maintaining or expanding global market share requires tight control of labor costs – and the 996 schedule became the status quo, regardless of labor laws guaranteeing a 44-hour work week.

A few anecdotes will explain the situation that many tech workers have faced since then.  In 2015, a Tencent developer collapsed and died while walking with his pregnant wife. A year later, a 34-year-old deputy chief editor of the Tianya online forum suffered a fatal cardiac arrest at a Beijing subway station. In 2018, a 25-year-old employee at drone manufacturer DJI also died from a cardiac arrest.  Even if workers are not dropping dead, most are experiencing significant ‘burn-out’ and some have begun communicating their frustration and exhaustion on Github, an opensource community for software developers.  Developed by Microsoft, it’s the one Western social media site that the PRC has not blocked.  Posts like these are most often left by younger employees.  Increasingly, these burnt-out employees are advocating for ‘lying flat’; rejecting the pressure and ambition that defined the lives of earlier generations.

Communication about the 996-work week has been closely managed so that it does not become a movement that would alarm China’s central government.  However, the growing discontent has recently (August 2021) resulted in a series of communications from the PRC. These pronouncements, pointed at firms where 996 is in place, remind managers about Chinese labor laws that limit the work week to just 44 hours, not 72. 

While older workers are resigned to the 72-hour week, some of China’s younger workers are seeking a work/ life balance that would allow them more time off for personal activities, and more rest.   Management, as you would probably suspect, is pushing back strongly.  For instance, Alibaba’s billionaire founder, Jack Ma, said this about the 996 schedule:

“[It’s] a huge blessing that many companies and employees don’t have the opportunity to have.  If you join Alibaba, you should get ready to work 12 hours a day, otherwise why do you come to Alibaba? We don’t need those who comfortably work eight hours.”


Effecting change to ensure all workers receive a 44-hour work schedule would mean changing the prevailing philosophies, psychologies and incentive structures present in 996 businesses.  For example, Huawei is a massive Chinese telecommunications firm.  Their corporate environment has been called a ‘wolf culture’, and it’s a ‘kill or be killed’ place to work.   Senior management believes that by pitting their employees in competition with one another, productivity will be much higher, and the company will be better at fighting external threats.  Huawei is not a leader in unique technologies.  They follow others.  They believe that their speed, cost control, and flexibility are the keys to their success, and they believe 996 game them their competitive edge.  Companies like Huawei believe that their willingness to work as hard as they do, in contrast with competitors who have more traditional 40-hour work schedules, is a badge of honor.  Huawei’s employees are required to take a ‘striver’s pledge’.  Basically, it’s an ‘oath’ to work a 996 schedule, despite the existing labor laws.  This ‘striver’s pledge’ is just one example of how Chinese companies are skirting the law to drive their employees to near-constant labor.  Financial incentives are also used.  Annual dividends more than hundreds of thousands, sometimes even millions of dollars are paid out to individual employees, in many cases eclipsing employees’ salaries.   In some Chinese companies, carrot-and-stick MBOs meant to encourage spectacular performance for spectacular incentives are based on unattainable goals.  This puts more power in the hands of the manager to determine if they deem the ‘effort’ of the employee to be satisfactory.  This practice is more common among local Chinese firms than among China’s MNCs.  The other side of the coin is that other companies do not pay their workers for the overtime hours, but they still demand the time.  Companies in this category are savvy about the loopholes and exemptions that allow them to evade legal obligations.

Keep in mind, the 996-work schedule is technically illegal.  Smart companies are not going to publish that schedule in their employee handbooks.  There are more subtle, but clearly understood ways of communicating this fact of life to employees.  Examples  you will find among China’s tech giants today include:

  • Companies provide free evening meals to their employees.
  • Companies reimburse employees for late night taxicab rides home.
  • To attract and retain younger employees, firms like Tencent and Alibaba pay very attractive wages that exceed five times the going market wage. The extremely high cost of living in China’s big cities practically demands salaries in those lofty altitudes.
  • The law of the Chinese tech sector jungle says career advancement will fall to those who make touch sacrifices like a 996-work week.
  • Chinese corporate culture places priority of the job and company over the family. To the Chinese worker, the company is a close group of colleagues who are making the same sacrifices.  In essence, personal relationships between workers are closer than those between spouses or parents and children. 
  • Urban tech workers increasingly recognize that there is fierce competition for their jobs coming from the rural areas. Workers from China’s interior are especially eager to make the hard sacrifices and work a 996 week because opportunities in the farming regions where they come from are so limited.

Like all our blogs, this description about working conditions in China is intended to be accurate, factual, and fair.  We are constantly working to present an accurate picture of China to you, our readers.

Finding appropriate work expectations is an age-old challenge for every country. 

However, I want to balance what has been said in this blog, with another observation about Chinese culture that I have always been struck by, and that it is the nearly universal commitment to hard work that is pervasive throughout China.  It is one the traits about the Chinese that I most sincerely admire. While there are, as everywhere, exceptions to the rule, I believe that the exceptions only make the rule that much more obvious.  So, please do not misconstrue anything said in this article as critical.

During my drives along gravel and dirt roads, I’ve never seen people sitting or lounging. Instead, they WORK. I have seen many people busy sweeping dirt.  At times I was not sure why, but people were consistently working.

Call me “old school” if you choose, but I take my hat off to anyone who is willing to work hard.

We keep a close eye on the changing landscape in China, because we know it’s important to your understanding of this fascinating market place.  For over twenty years, Word4Asia has been helping organizations like yours achieve their objectives through consistently solid consulting and  hard work.  If you’ve got China in your sights for 2022, we hope y you’ll reach out and start a conversation with us!  You can reach me, Dr. Gene Wood, at  


Artificial Intelligence

by Joe

Behold the Wooden Horse

When Servants Become Masters

He was granted power to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak and cause as many as would not worship the image of the beast to be killed. He causes all, both small and great, rich, and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666 (Rev. 13:14–18).

If you’re not a techno-geek, you may have missed the dawn of the “Age of Surveillance Capitalism” – a recent book by the author, Shoshana Zuboff.  However, think about these recent events:

  • An English online newspaper, The Guardian, reported that an Amazon Echo Dot advice in London had awakened itself, and began to randomly spout off a series of ecommerce transactions that the device’s owner had recently executed using the device.  Among these, train tickets were booked, and the Echo Dot programmed the recording of television shows.  
  • A woman in Portland, Oregon reported that her Alexa device had ‘overheard’ private conversations, record them, then email them to an acquaintance.   


Given tech products that are already easily available, and what is being now being developed in research labs in countries all over the world, it’s easy to see that our species is standing at a new crossroads.  AI is going to play a central role in how society continues to develop, and like all technologies, whether it is for good or bad depends entirely on how mankind chooses to use the technology.   There are two camps; the one that says, ‘all’s well, fear not’, and the other side that says, ‘proceed with caution’.  Some researchers contend that AI will never deliver significant, practical value.  Someone once said that those who ignore history are doomed to repeat it.  To that point, take this excerpt from a 1911 article in the Saturday Evening Post, written by one of the early inventors of the automobile (there were many). 


“Things are very different today. But in the ’[18]90’s, even though I had a successful bicycle business, and was building my first car in the privacy of the cellar in my home, I began to be pointed out as “the fool who is fiddling with a buggy that will run without being hitched to a horse.” My banker called on me to say: “Winton, I am disappointed in you.”

Artificial Intelligence is about to make everything about today's world look as quaint as the horse and buggy.

Today, the United States leads the world in total investment (private and public combined) in developing Artificial Intelligence.   In 2020, total US investment was exceeded $23 Billion.  China is in second place, with close to $10 Billion and while the gap is still significant, the Chinese government has made it a very high-level priority.  They are keenly interested in speech and image recognition.   Since 2015, American firms have raised 56% of total global capital that has been invested in AI.  In China, most of the development comes from the universities and research institutes, most of which are government owned or sponsored.  To really see how hard the Chinese are working to close the gap, just look at China’s global share of published AI research papers; in 1997, their contribution was just 4.3%.  In 2017, they published 37,343 papers (27.8% of all published research papers, globally).   The Chinese are focused on speech recognition, speech synthesis, and vision (image/ video recognition).     A recent article by the Chinese journalist, Xiaomin Mou states that 73% of Chinese investment in AI has benefited the B2B Services, Lifestyle & Consumption, Transportation & Automobile and Health industry subsectors.  In the United States, the National Science Foundation, along with Amazon, Google, Intel, Accenture, the Department of Homeland Security and USDA are cooperating to operate these new NSF AI institutes:

  • for Collaborative Assistance and Responsive Interaction for Networked Groups
  • for Advances in Optimization.
  • for Learning-Enabled Optimization at Scale.
  • for Intelligent Cyberinfrastructure with Computational Learning in the Environment.
  • for Future Edge Networks and Distributed Intelligence
  • for Edge Computing Leveraging Next-generation Networks
  • for Dynamic Systems
  • for Engaged Learning
  • for Adult Learning and Online Education
  • for Agricultural AI for Transforming Workforce and Decision Support
  • for Resilient Agriculture

China’s relative command of the application of AI in their consumer markets has been an important insulator against foreign market competitors.  The Chinese have mastered the use of machine learning and a sophisticated AI engine to analyze all available data points, including the millions of conversations consumers have about the brand online, which can be challenging because of the firewalled Chinese internet.

China’s marketers have an important advantage in understanding consumer brand and product sentiment and  more importantly how sentiment changes over time. They use a combination of social listening and sophisticated modeling of how changes in sentiment impact purchase patterns. China’s brands use this technology strengthen their brand strategies and tactics, and it shows up in retail sales.  China’s consumers have also rapidly adopted many products in the IOT (internet of things) category.  These products range across a wide, and ever-increasing range of products such as smart phones, smart refrigerators, smartwatches, smart fire alarms, smart door locks, smart bicycles, medical sensors, fitness trackers, smart security systems and so on.  By the end of this decade, more than 8 billion IOT devices will be connected to China’s firewalled internet.  Capable of observing, measuring, and recording everything imaginable, these devices will be inescapable.  Of course, those same products are growing in popularity in the United States, too.

This great leap forward in China’s development of AI was made a policy in 2017, when China announced in its ambition to become the world leader in artificial intelligence (AI) by 2030.  China is now making faster progress in AI than either the US or the EU.  Central and local government spending on AI in China is estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.   In this field of research, there are two overwhelmingly important assets,  data and computer science and engineering talent.  China has strengths in both areas. 

As AI is of strategic importance to China, the nation’s government has instituted an array or policies to support its growth. These policies send a clear signal to different AI stakeholders, including entrepreneurs, investors, and even researchers, that AI is a field that is being backed by the government and is worth corporate investment.  China’s approach to AI development and implementation is fast-paced and pragmatic, oriented towards finding applications which can help solve real-world problems. Rapid progress is being made in the field of healthcare, Chinese corporations are investing in several areas; healthcare applications, such as AI Doctor chatbots, machine learning to increase the pace that pharmaceutical product development occurs at, deep learning for medical image processing (useful for early detection of certain diseases, such as cancer), and surveillance, and military applications.  Two-thirds of global investment in artificial intelligence is pouring into China, one of the reasons that the AI industry there grow 67% last year alone.

These are the top five Chinese AI firms:


As developing AI is a top-down,  centralized imperative, cross-sector partnerships connecting tech companies and research institutions have been developed at the local city, and regional levels.  Municipal and provincial governments across China are establishing cross-sector partnerships with research institutions and tech companies to create local AI innovation ecosystems and drive rapid research and development.  By 2025, all industries in China will be securely connected in an AI network; company control, and production will be AI-reliant.  

AI will balance supply and demand.  China has planned for an entire ecosystem that will support AI; legal frameworks, resources, goals, local-level adaptation – and of course, the capital to support continued growth in AI are all coming together rapidly.   Government, too, plays a vital role.  There are local and provincial incentives for the administration and politicians to assert themselves in the AI industry and to seek higher levels of responsibility.  At the university level, hundreds of new AI professorships have been established, and hundreds of thousands of schools are being created.

As developing AI is a top-down,  centralized imperative, cross-sector partnerships connecting tech companies and research institutions have been developed at the local city, and regional levels.  Municipal and provincial governments across China are establishing cross-sector partnerships with research institutions and tech companies to create local AI innovation ecosystems and drive rapid research and development.  By 2025, all industries in China will be securely connected in an AI network; company control, and production will be AI-reliant.  AI will balance supply and demand.  China has planned for an entire ecosystem that will support AI; legal frameworks, resources, goals, local-level adaptation – and of course, the capital to support continued growth in AI are all coming together rapidly.   Government, too, plays a vital role.  There are local and provincial incentives for the administration and politicians to assert themselves in the AI industry and to seek higher levels of responsibility.  At the university level, hundreds of new AI professorships have been established, and hundreds of thousands of schools are being created.


If this sounds like science fiction to you so far, meet Hua Zhibing, a student enrolled in Tsinghua University in Beijing. Hua has been in love with literature and art since birth, she says.  At six, Hua can write songs, poems, and draw.  She is expected to be able to create websites soon.  By the way, did I mention that Hua is also an AI-powered virtual student whose image has been seen around the world on Weibo — China’s answer to Twitter — and other social media?  Hua absorbs data such as text, images, and videos.  She is believed to has some reasoning and emotional interaction abilities.  In another year, she will have the intellect of a 12-year-old, and she will continue to develop after that, too. Researchers involved in the project hope that at some point, she will have a higher EQ (emotional intelligence) so that she will be able to communicate like a real human.  The AI software that runs Hua uses 1.75 trillion parameters that allow ‘her’ to simulate conversational speech, write poems and understand pictures. It surpassed the record of 1.6 trillion parameters set by Google’s Switch Transformer.  It’s not science fiction, and it’s happening faster than most of us can comprehend.


We’re converging on a point where science fiction and reality are becoming the same thing.  It’s only a matter of time before robots and AI replace humans in manufacturing, design, delivery and even marketing of most goods, lowering costs to a tiny fraction above materials costs.  AI-driven robots will self-replicate, self-repair, and even partially self-design. Houses and apartment buildings will be designed by AI and use prefabricated modules that robots put together like toy blocks. And just-in-time autonomous public transportation, from robo-buses to robo-scooters, will take us anywhere we want to go.  In 2020, Forbes magazine published statements from a report by the World Economic Forum; their prediction is that by 2025, 85 million global jobs will be replaced by automation (AI and robots).  To raise concerns more, WEF also projects that the current 70/30 split between jobs done by people vs. machines will also have switched to a 50/50 split.  Consider the kinds of work that technology, produced by these leading Chinese firms, is already capable of producing:

There was a time when machines were clearly tools to make people’s paths easier.  For millennia, they mostly served our needs,  although there were always occasions for their utility to be turned in harmful directions.  The great cellist, Pablo Cassals once made a comment that seems especially insightful now, though, “Man has made many machines, complex and cunning, but which of them indeed rivals the workings of his heart?”, and those are the words we’ll use to end this month’s blog.



Word4Asia is a consulting firm that assists organizations with strategic growth plans focused on mainland China.  We’re proud of the relationships we’ve enjoyed, and the service we’ve provided our clients for more than twenty years.  Perhaps your eye is on China, too?  We hope you’ll reach out to us.  I’d be happy to talk with you and see if there is anything in our experience that benefits you.  I’m pretty sure there is!  Contact me at

China Sector Growth

by Joe

China’s Fastest Growing Economic Sector? You May Be Surprised!

If you were to guess what the number one growth sector in the Chinese economy will be in the next few years, which one would you pick?

If your answer is China’s quickly growing film industry, you’re correct!   In fact, in 2020, China’s total box office receipts it the #1 film market in the world, with an equivalent of $2.7 billion in sales, outselling US movie theater revenues ($2.3 billion) 17.4%, in a year when US industry revenues were down 80% due to theaters being closed due to Covid-19.  The market research firm, Ibis, projects 224% growth in Chinese movie theater ticket sales in 2022 over 2021.


Needless to say, China’s growing prominence in the industry is a cause for concern for the US movie production companies who, for the entire history of commercial film, have led world film revenues.

So, what’s going on?  Well, it’s true that it takes money to make money and in recent years non-box office returns have provided the capital needed to fuel the continued development of  

China’s film industry.  For instance, there has been steady expansion of movies into second, third and fourth-tier Chinese cities, where tickets are sold at lower prices to match the difference in average household incomes.  It also doesn’t hurt that China’s population is about four times the size of our own.

Another important factor is the increased use of internet and “big data” throughout the entire Chinese film ecosystem; this includes IP, production, marketing and promotion, distribution, and ticket sales.  One example is the rapid rise of internet film companies (like Netflix); Tencent (producer of internet-related products and services) Pictures and Baidu (internet-related services and products and AI) Pictures are examples.  The traditional Chinese film companies are in close pursuit of these recent entrants and are investing big into internet and big data technologies needed to support streaming video.


Crowd sourcing is another important source of the capital which is supporting the growth of Chinese cinema. 

Recent Chinese film releases indicate that projections, like the one coming out of Ibis, are on target even with Chinese theaters running at half capacity.  In February of this current year, the Chinese film industry posted its biggest month ever; 11.2 billion yuan ($1.7 billion).  Of course, being a communist economy, the state has a heavy hand in controlling competition and supporting domestic producers.  In the Chinese film industry, this comes in the form of ‘blackout’ periods where only Chinese films are shown.  Another factor that has worked in the industry’s favor has been the absence of both direct and indirect competition.  During Covid-19, there has been a lack of any American-made blockbuster films; this has given the Chinese films more ‘sunlight to grow in’.  In recent blogs, we have also talked about how the shutdowns have successfully kept the Chinese in their homes or at least in their hometowns.  With fewer entertainment opportunities, more people have been going to the movies, or streaming movies at home, to see domestically made films.  

This is a stark contrast with what we have experienced at home.  In the United States, few movie-goers have had the desire or courage to venture into a theater.  Some of us found we enjoyed lying on our recliners and couches at home while taking in a new movie on one of the many streaming options.  Others have opted to see fewer films and avoid exposure to the virus.  Never the less, Memorial Day weekend film receipts did show a significant improvement, and industry people are beginning to relax a smidge.  Consider this comparison:

All this is not to say that the Chinese film industry is not without its own set of challenges.  One of these is the ‘K-shaped’ economic recovery, like what has occurred here.  A few, giant film production companies are having massive success; the medium and small-sized companies are facing possible failure.  The return of the virus, in the form of the Delta variant, has also forced theaters to either close, or operate at 25% under full capacity at all viewings.  However, it is expected that this, too, is ultimately a short-term situation.


Meanwhile, the American production companies are concerned about what the continued long-term growth of China’s film industry may mean to their bottom lines.  For instance, the Warner Bros. film, Godzilla vs. Kong, which opened in March of this year, earned $48.5 million in its first five days in American movie theaters.  As of April 29, that take had increased to $86.6 million.  The film is concurrently running on HBO Max where it continues to earn millions.  In a recent interview, USC professor and film industry expert, Steven Ross said, “We still have some of the most advanced structures for filmmaking, and we also have a huge pipeline in terms of talent of writers, directors, actors, and producers, so, I still think the U.S. is in a position to lead through the good part of the next decade or two in the 21st century. Beyond that, I’m not sure.”

Other market issues also paint a questionable picture for the U.S. film industry, including the demise of the theater-mall shopping area.  With more and more retail sales going e-commerce, due to Amazon and all the mini-zons that have sprouted up in recent years, the theaters do not have the traffic flowing around their businesses anymore.  This pattern had been developing for years, before the pandemic and subsequent recession; that event was only the last nail in the coffin for many theaters.  By the end of 2020, the number of U.S. theater screens had declined 174%.  Meanwhile, as China’s economy has improved – especially in the large cities, the exact opposite trend has been occurring.  Since the early 2000’s, there has been a steady increase in the number of modern malls with inexpensive restaurants, museums, shops and movie theaters.  In 2019, China added 9,708 new screens and 1,453 new theaters. Even during the pandemic, the country added 300 more theaters and 5,794 more screens in 2020, which brought its nationwide total up to 75,581 screens.   

As in other industries, American films also face trade restrictions when looking for distribution in China.  To start, there are quotas on the number of American-made films that can run at any one time in China.  Presently, that number is 34 films per year.  The number increases if Chinese production companies are involved in the film.  American studios also create separate edits with changes in characters, deleted parts, removal of certain symbols (such as Japanese or Taiwanese flags) in order to get past China’s censors.  Peter Newman, a film professor, and head of the dual MBA/MFA Graduate program at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts, stated, “The policies of the [Chinese] government and the entertainment business change, literally, on a weekly basis.”  These changes can mean that a film which had previously been green lit for distribution is suddenly ineligible.  

The industry implications of Covid-19, and China’s increasing global economic dominance are playing out in many industries.  We’ve used the examples of the Chinese and American film industries because it’s something that almost all of us can relate to, given our culture’s fascination with the media.  From our perspective at Word4Asia, it simply means that our role as experts on Chinese regulations, and consultants to organizations who seek to do more business with China is as important as ever, maybe more so.  As always, if your organization is on the verge of an important initiative involving China, we sincerely wish you success.  We’d be happy to talk with you about your plans, and possibly a role in your efforts.   Feel free to contact us at



All the Best.


Update on Travel Restrictions Into Mainland China

by Joe

It’s been seventeen long months since the U.S. set Covid-related travel restrictions, and in our recent vlog, Dr. Wood shared Word4Asia’s own situation with regard to short-range plans for a return to our presence in China.  We thought it might be helpful to your organization’s planning if we share more about what we know regarding travel to China.

The Chinese government continues to ban most foreign nationals from entering its borders.  However, starting March 15 of this current year, China has made it easier for members of various groups from 23 different countries to start traveling there once again.  These groups include people coming to work for humanitarian reasons, like reuniting with family, and people who hold APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Business Travel Cards. 

Chinese residents can also return. Under the March 15 decision, people traveling to China must also have received the Chinese version of the Covid vaccine within 15 days of travel.  At that time, China also stated it was their goal to have a 40% vaccination rate by June.  They beat that objective, having vaccinated over one-billion of their citizens by that date.

In April,  the Chinese embassy in the United States confirmed that travelers with documented Covid-19 vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines would also be eligible.  In order to travel to China, all authorized travelers will need to apply for a health certificate via the local Chinese diplomatic mission prior to travel. Travelers should be prepared to face health screenings, including body temperature scans and nucleic acid testing, at ports of entry throughout China.  Depending on port of entry, including Beijing, Shanghai, and Qingdao but possibly others, international arrivals in some locations, will face mandatory anal COVID-19 swabs. Most international travelers will need to quarantine for 14 days and receive a negative COVID-19 test result before release from government-designated hotel facilities  Some regional governments will actually require inbound travelers to self-quarantine and undergo medical observation for three or four weeks. 

Covid-19 related travel requirements include:

  • Presentation of two negative tests, including the PCR and antibody tests, taken within 72 hours of travel.
  • Officials require all authorized inbound passengers from specified countries to provide evidence of both nucleic acid COVID-19 and IgM antibody tests from designated facilities in the departure country within 48 hours of boarding flights.
  • For newly qualified entrants, entry also requires having received two doses of Covid-19 vaccines at least 14 days prior to entry. They must apply for a visa in advance, and show their proof of vaccination on arrival, as well as the negative tests.
  • Passengers who test positive for COVID-19 antibodies may be allowed to enter China if they have documentation showing they are fully vaccinated.
  • Arrivals are screened once more at the airport.  Passengers that fail the checks will be sent to government-designated hotels to complete 14-day or 21-day quarantines, depending on the travel region and at their own expense.  

As of June 7, the measure applies to travelers from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cote d’Ivoire, Denmark, Egypt, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, the UAE, the UK, the US, and Vietnam.

Starting in June, China has delineated several risk levels regarding regions with known Covid infections.  

Hi risk:   Two communities in Guangzhou have also been declared high-risk areas several Medium-risk:  Several communities in Guangzhou and Foshan, Guangdong Province, along with one community in Lu’an, Anhui Province.  Local governments often carry out several rounds of mass testing in medium- or high-risk areas.

Low risk:  Other locations in mainland China are officially designated as low risk. 

Individuals residing in or having recent travel history to high- and medium-risk areas will face travel, movement, and gathering restrictions. 

When regions are categorized as medium or high-risk, local authorities often lock down the affected communities, including road blocks and check-points.  Residents are required to remain in their homes or provide a negative COVID-19 test result before departing the affected area.  In these areas, individuals who wish to travel face mandatory testing.  Long-distance transportation services into and out of these areas have been limited. 

Authorities in China have also implemented health-checks at airports, train and subway stations, increasing travel times.  Public transportation operators are also requiring passengers to share health code information before boarding mass transit.

Exceptions to travel restrictions include: 

  • Foreigners from most countries with valid residence permits for work, family visits, and personal matters can enter the country. 
  • Some immediate family members of foreign employees may obtain entry permission for emergency humanitarian purposes. 
  • Specially designated foreign workers with invitation letters from provincial or municipal government officials can also enter the country. Foreign nationals traveling to mainland China for work, business, or humanitarian reasons can waive the requirement for obtaining invitation letters prior to applying for new visas if they are fully inoculated with Chinese-produced COVID-19 vaccines. 
  • Most foreigners arriving from Bangladesh, Belgium, France, India, Italy, the Philippines, Russia, and the United Kingdom are banned, regardless of residency status, unless they have received Chinese-made COVID-19 vaccines. 
  • Diplomatic personnel and C visa holders, generally flight and shipping crew members, are exempt from entry bans regardless of country of origin. 
  • Officials have also banned flights to and from the UK until further notice.

Chinese citizens must update their information through WeChat to obtain a health code before boarding flights. 

Besides all of the point-of-entry restrictions, China has also reduced the number of flights into their nation.  For instance, the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) manages international airline flight volume based on how well the airlines themselves are limiting the number of positive-testing passengers they transport there.  If a foreign carrier achieves three weeks with no passengers testing positive, officials will permit one more flight on pre-existing routes. If five passengers of an airline test positive, the CAAC will suspend the carrier’s operations for one week; if 10 of the airline’s passengers test positive, the suspension will last four weeks. China and US regulators continue to limit available flights from each other’s countries to eight per week.  

Close up of arrivals information board.

Due to the many travel restrictions, a desire to protect the health of our employees, and a desire to support both America’s and China’s efforts to protect each nation’s populations, Word4Asia continues to manage our operations in China from our California office.  We’re grateful to our clients for their continuing support and understanding during this difficult period.  We applaud the continued hard work of our mainland China network, and we are thankful for the blessings of modern communications that make all of this possible.  Our advice to our readers:

  • Consider postponing nonessential travel to mainland China. 
  • Confirm all scheduled international flights. 
  • Consult airlines and Chinese diplomatic facilities for details on restrictions prior to any travel. 
  • Follow all official instructions and closely monitor official announcements on any other precautionary restrictions. 
  • Confirm all travel and business reservations. 
  • Allow additional travel time due to screenings at airports, train stations, and other transport hubs. 
  • Make allowances for possible business disruptions.

We hope that this information has been helpful to you in thinking through the options your organization might have as related to travel to and within China during this period.  In over 20-years of continuous working with many different organizations who have interests in China, we have always found a way to provide valuable support, no matter what the conditions were.  If your objectives also include a presence in China, Word4Asia is here to assist.  We hope you’ll reach out.  You can reach Dr. Gene Wood at 


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